The resource requirements for national immunizations have rapidly increased in the last decade with the introduction of costly new vaccines. In this context, accurate information on the cost and financing of national immunization programs is essential for strategic planning and program management activities of national ministries as well as for donors.

Despite the existence of tools such as the World Health Organization’s Comprehensive Multi-Year Planning Tool (CMYP) and the Joint Reporting Form, high-quality information on costs, expenditures, and funding flows are generally lacking. Where such information exists, it is not easily comparable across settings, and it is rarely used to examine productive efficiency. 

To address this gap, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided financing for EPIC--a coordinated set of immunization costing and financing studies in 2012-2014 in six countries (Benin Ghana Uganda Zambia Moldova and Honduras). These studies collected data at central, subnational, and facility-level and were notable for their rigor in terms of sample design and comprehensiveness of resource use measurement. 


The study teams collected and analyzed immunization costing and financing data from six countries. Results were then disseminated to the public and community of practice. 



EPIC studies follow a common approach notable for the rigor in sample design, comprehensiveness of resource use and productive efficiency measurement, and comparability across settings. Download: Common approach | Questionnaire


Final reports from the studies on Costing and Financing of Routine Immunization and New Vaccines (EPIC) is available for download. Download: BEN | GHA | UGA | ZAM | HON | MOL




Using the pooled dataset from six countries, we analyzed the immunization program cost drivers, marginal cost of scaling up, variation in productive efficiency, and tradeoffs associated with different costing extrapolation methods. Articles coming soon. 


Information on financial flows from external, government, and other domestic sources are documented and quantified as input for policy dialogue on sustainability and co-financing of new vaccines. Download: Instrument | Resource map coming soon.



We reviewed the EPIC study methods and implementation and document lessons learned to inform future approaches to carrying out similar multisite costing studies and improve routine immunization data collection and delivery. Enhancing program performance, a Zambian Case StudySampling guide coming soon.


Results of our findings are disseminated in national and international meetings and workshops, focused on developing capacity for cost-efficiency and quality performance measurements. Download reports: 2016 Immunization Costing Workshop



We create a public web-based data resource to provide other researchers access to the data from the EPIC studies and support a community of practice around immunization costing and financial flow analysis. Join us now!


We support a community of practice comprised of researchers and practitioners concerned with measuring immunization program cost and financial flow - and utilizing such information to improve program operations and mobilize resources.

A broader community of practice allows exchange of information and enable new approaches to collecting and using cost information to improve vaccine delivery. To date we have more than 500 members in our community from more than 50 organizations involved in immunization programs across the globe.