How to cost immunization programs
a practical guide on primary data collection and analysis
The aim of this paper is to provide practice advice for applying health service costing methods in the context of immunization. It is designed as a supplement to existing resources and is not intended to be comprehensive or replace existing costing guidelines. Within this scope, the paper covers the identification of evidence gaps, articulation of research questions, identification of data sources, data collection methods, and data analysis. This paper assumes that the reader already has basic knowledge of economics and cost measurement concepts.
The content of this paper draws heavily on lessons learned during the EPIC project, Provac Initiative, and other related studies in which the cost of delivering immunization through national programs was estimated in over 10 countries. All these studies had the goal of describing the cost structure of comprehensive immunization programs since the introduction of a new generation of vaccines (Pentavalent, Rotavirus, Pneumococcal). Most also sought to describe the factors were associated with variation in cost per dose between service delivery sites. Finally, some of these studies examined the financing of immunization programs and the cost of new vaccine introductions.
This paper extends and generalizes costing guidance included in an earlier document, which described a “Common Approach” methodology for implementing the original six EPIC studies.
We would like to invite the Immunization Economics community to explore the working paper, take part as a contributor to the guide, and provide feedback. Review period ends Feb 15th, 2019
A new systematic review and simulation study discussed cost estimators. Simple mean has an upward bias from 12% to 113%. To reduce bias, use volume-weighted mean, calibration, or regression estimators.
The EPIC project is proud to announce the Sample Design Optimizer (SDO) instrument. This instrument aims to assist research teams develop cost-effective and efficient sample design to maximize expected precision within a data collection budget constraint.
A new working paper provides a practical guide on immunization costing primary data collection and analysis. We would like to invite the Immunization Economics community to explore the working paper and provide feedback
Analyses estimating program costs collected on a subsample of facilities are subject to statistical uncertainty, often quantified via standard errors and/or 95% confidence intervals. This recent publication elaborates methods to reduce statistical uncertainty.
In the October 2017 Newsletter Issue, Dr. Brenzel thanks and welcomes the members of the Immunization Economics Community of Practice. Read her welcome letter here.
Using a unique pooled dataset of 316 health facilities in six countries, EPIC project analyses describe differences in unit cost estimates assocated with service volume, delivery methods, immunization coverage, staff training, seniority, and site location. Access datasets and paper here.
Health Policy & Planning podcast discusses the importance in understanding detailed cost structure, its relationship with efficiency, and implications for health policy and future planning in immunization programs. Listen to podcast here.
Health Policy and Planning blogpost examines how detailed understanding of the cost structure of immunization programs can inform policy. Read more here.