The summary report provides a descriptive and gap analysis of findings on immunization delivery costs


Figure. Geographic spread.png


view figure

71% of the immunization delivery unit costs are for single vaccines.

Of the single vaccines, most unit costs are for HPVPCV, and Rotavirus.

Notes: Percentages do not sum to 100% due to rounding. There were no articles with immunization delivery unit cost estimates for Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV).

Codes: BCG = Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; DTP = Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, pediatric formulation; HepB = Hepatitis B; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b; HPV = Human Papillomavirus; JE = Japanese Encephalitis; OCV = Oral Cholera Vaccine; OPV = Oral Polio Vaccine; PCV = Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (7-, 10-, or 13-valent); TT = Tetanus Toxoid


view figure

68% of unit costs are for vaccines costed were delivered in a health facility.

10% of unit costs are for vaccines delivered in schools, all focused on HPV introduction.

* Includes child health days/weeks or national immunization days/weeks.
** Refers to two or more delivery strategies.

Our analysis resulted in eight immunization delivery cost ranges comprised of comparable unit costs grouped in three comparative visuals

All cost ranges exclude vaccine costs and are reported in 2016 US$. Cost ranges can be helpful for planning and budgeting purposes when more detailed or context-specific data is unavailable. Suitability of the estimates for use for planning and budgeting, or for advocacy and fundraising, should be carefully considered in light of the context(s) the estimates will be applied in.

Figure 1: The diagram below depicts the incremental cost per dose to deliver a single, newly introduced vaccine such as PCV or Rotavirus (3-dose) at health facilities in low-income countries. We estimate these costs to be $0.48 to $1.38 (economic costs) and $0.16 to $2.54 (economic, financial, and fiscal costs). Full immunization (three doses) ranges from $1.45 to $4.20 (economic costs)

view figure

Figure 2: The diagram below below depicts the cost of introducing HPV vaccine. Introducing HPV at schools on a pilot/project basis costs $1.95 to $4.29 (incremental costs). The lower end of the range represents financial costs, shown by cost range number 4, whereas the higher end of the range corresponds with economic costs, shown by cost range number 5.

view figure

Figure 3: The diagram below depicts the full costs for delivering schedules of vaccines. Considering only supply chain-related costs, the full, economic cost per dose of delivering vaccination schedules containing 6 to 7 antigens range from $0.22 to $0.33. We estimate the costs (i.e., all costs, not supply chain only) of delivering a schedule of four to eight antigens for under one-year-olds to range from $0.75 to $9.45 (full, economic costs). This equates to a cost per fully immunized child (children who have received DTP3) of $8.13 to $96.16.

view figure


These figures provide an in-depth look at the components of the boxplot with more details on how to interpret the cost ranges. [Download]


© 2019, Immunization Costing Action Network (ICAN), ThinkWell, LLC. All rights reserved.